Browsing posts in: Nutrition

Accelerade light recipe

I’ve used http://www.accelerade.com/mountain berry as a hydration drink for quite some time. It works pretty well, but it has a problem – it’s sweetened mostly with sucrose, which means that it’s quite sweet. They use some citric acid to counter that a bit, but after a couple of hours it gets too sweet to drink.

Some people dilute it, which makes it less sweet but also reduces the number of calories in a bottle. I prefer to make the existing drink less sweet.

What we need is a sugar that acts like sucrose but is less sweet. Maltodextrain is a complex carbohydrate – a chain of glucose molecules all hooked together (sometimes known as a glucose polymer), and it breaks down to glucose very easily.

I get mine from the supplement house:

 

My current recipe is 2.5 parts Accelerade to 1 part maltodextrin. I did one batch at 2:1 which is another option.

Recipe:

3 3/4 cups Accelerade (750 grams)
2 1/4 cups Maltodextrin (300 grams)
1 teaspon salt

Put in a big bowl and mix. This amount will fit in one of the small accelerade containers. The amount of salt is slightly more than what it would normally have – if you want to keep the sodium the same, you need 8/10ths of a teaspoon.

This also has less protein – instead of the 4:1 ratio, you’re down to something less than that. You could add more whey protein if you wanted.

 


Diet, hunger, and blood sugar

My good friend Chris wrote a nice post about nutrition – one which I am very much in agreement with, and I thought I’d use it as a jumping-off-point to put down some thoughts I’ve had for a while.

One of the problems in talking about this stuff is that there’s a paradox in how you eat as an athlete. Sometimes you should eat really well, and other times you should do the opposite. But I had a thought recently.

It all revolves around blood sugar. The whole goal of performance diets is to keep a constant blood sugar level, but the way you do it depends on the circumstances.

It starts with your base diet – what you eat normally. You want to keep your blood sugar constant, which means avoiding the things that will cause your blood sugar to move quickly. Which means refined sugar, flour, rice, etc. – anything that has a high glycemic index.

If you eat it, your blood sugar goes up really fast, your body releases insulin, and the sugar gets converted to fat and stored. And your blood sugar drops, and you get hungry again. Which is what is behind the “chinese food” syndrome, where you eat a meal with lots of white rice, and then get hungry again a few hours later.

It’s not quite that simple, however. It turns out that the absorption of carbs – and therefore their effect on blood sugar – is moderated by the presence of other foods. If you have fat, protein, or fiber, it will slow down the spike in blood sugar.

So, to keep your blood sugar constant and your hunger in check, you want to have some fat, some protein, some fiber, and any carbs of the less-refined variety. If I had to pick a popular diet that’s close to this, I’d pick something like South Beach.

That will moderate blood sugar normally, but it doesn’t work when we are exercising. During exercise, we are burning carbs in conjunction with fat, and over time – if we exercise long enough – we will totally run out of carbs, leading to the dreaded “bonk”. Even if we don’t totally run out of carbs, we will end up with very depleted carb reserves. Which means, at the end of the ride you’ll be very hungry, and likely to overeat, or at the very least, not eat very well.

You also may not be able to fill up those carb reserves in time for your next workout.

So, we need a way to keep your blood sugar up during the workout. If you can do that, not only will your carb reserves last longer, but you will be less hungry at the end of the workout.

And how can we do that? Well, we could eat more of our normal healthy diet, but that has a few problems. It’s fairly hard to digest, and you probably don’t have enough blood supply to spare from your muscles to send to your stomach to digest. It’s also pretty bulky, and you don’t really need any extra fat during exercise – there’s plenty in your fat stores.

So, we need something that’s easily digested, and will support our blood sugar. That’s exactly the simple, refined carbs that we are avoiding in our normal diet. We don’t get an insulin response because we are burning enough carbs that we aren’t going to spike the blood sugar.

And finally, when we’re done exercising, we haven’t quite refilled our carb stores, so we can take in some extra simple carbs and protein, and that will let us refill those carb stores.

How does this work if we are trying to lose weight? We might burn 1500 calories on that 3 hour ride, but if we are taking in 250 cal/hour of carbs, we’ll only net a 750 calorie debt. So, if we don’t eat at all, we’ll lose more weight.

But remember the blood sugar thing. Sure, we’ll have a 1500 calorie deficit at the end of the workout, but we’ll have to work hard to not to eat more than that when we’re done. Or, we can burn 750 calories of fat, replace the carbs, and – because we’ve kept the blood sugar constant – not replace the fat.


The ultimate food for long rides…

Phatty’s fictional post on how to be popular – fictional because of his delusion of popularity – reminded me of something that happened the last time that I did RSVP.

I was riding with a group of guys that work at the same large software company that I do (yes, *that* large software company).

The second day of RSVP starts in Bellingham, goes north and across the border into Canada, and wends its way north. After a while, it runs into the Fraser river in Fort Langley, where you will catch the Albion ferry to get to the other side. On the way to the ferry, there’s a small market, which Steve (not his real name) had been talking up for hours.

I’m not typically one to eat a lot on long rides, but the Steve’s Rhapsodic descriptions of the effectiveness of the macaroni and cheese as a mid-ride meal swayed me, so I bought a small server and headed outside with the others to eat. Steve decided not only to have the mac & cheese, but also to have a piece of chicken.

After a few minutes, he appeared outside with a large container of macaroni and cheese, a container of water, and a large roast chicken, which he bought “because it was cheaper that way”.

Initially, he was exposed to a considerable amount of teasing, but by the time we got back on our bikes 15 minutes later, the bulk of the chicken had been consumed by the four of us.

And, on that day at least, he was right about the mac and cheese.

 


Nutrition Tips

My triathlete friend Chris wrote a nice post a while back with some nutrition tips. It covers a lot of the same topics that I’ve been meaning to write about, so I’m going to use his post as a starting point.

Carbohydrates and athletes

Philosophically, my nutrition is very close to what Chris advocates – I eat one way for my normal diet, and eat differently around my workouts. As Chris notes, simple carbs are fine during exercise, but should be limited other times. The difference is because of the difference in the body’s needs during the two periods, and the explanation is going to be long and have a few sidetrips, but I’ll get there in the end.

Basically, your body has mechanisms intended to regulate your blood sugar so that it stays in certain ranges. Your brain, muscles, and other systems are constantly pulling carbohydrate out of your blood, and your digestive system is providing carbs back into the blood. Since mammals don’t necessarily eat all the time, there are a couple of systems to smooth things out.

First of all, your liver stores a fair amount of glycogen, and it will release it to the blood as needed. It will also make you hungry. If you are exercising hard, however, you will get appetite suppression, and eventually, you will run out of liver glycogen. At that point, your body goes into a survival mode – it can synthesize enough glycogen to keep your brain going, but not support exercise at the same time.

This is the dreaded “bonk”, and the confusion that you get as part of a bonk is because you don’t have enough sugar in your brain. The amount of time it takes to bonk depends on how hard you’re exercising (higher intensity requires more carbs), your level of fitness (high trained individuals burn fewer carbs at a given intensity), and how full you muscle and liver glycogen tanks are. So, some people can ride 3 hours without bonking, and others might sometimes bonk after 75 minutes. Be especially observant with kids, as they don’t tend to eat as well or as often – my daughter bonked (or came close to it) on a bike ride last summer about 15 miles in because she hadn’t eaten much recently. I always carry a couple of gels in my seat pack for those situations, and that made her happier quickly (though not happy, as it takes days to recover from a bonk).

So, anyway, that’s why having a supply of carbs during exercise is a good idea, but as Chris notes, you don’t need much – perhaps 150-250 cal per hour.

If there is excess blood sugar, it will go to muscle and liver glycogen. If those are full, the liver will convert them to fat and save them for a rainy day. That mechanism has served mammals pretty well historically, but it evolved for the typical mammalian diet, and a situation where food is scarce. It has a few problems with refined carbs.

Or, not really with the refined carbs, but with the stuff that has been refined out. You can eat foods that are high and sugar – such as fruit – but the absorption will be slowed down by the fiber in the food. Similarly, if your meal is a mixture of carbs, protein, and fat, the protein and fat will slow down the absorption of the carbs, and you will get a slow trickle of nutritents, which will keep you satisfied for a longer period of time.

If you eat the refined stuff – sugar, white flour, white rice – you blood sugar goes up pretty fast, and your body will likely have to store some of it in fat, and your blood sugar will go back down.  So, that’s why the whole foods are better from a carb perspective – they keep you full longer. Not to mention their other health benefits.

During exercise, things are different – your liver and muscle glycogen aren’t full, and the small amounts that you should eat during exercise will go to keep those sources full.

Recovery

It’s important to get protein and carbs very soon after exercise, to refill the liver and muscle glycogen stores and start any needed repair. If you don’t, your body will work to refill your glycogen stores by converting protein to glycogen. It gets this protein from your muscles, which would be bad. I have much less muscle soreness with carbs/protein drinks during and after exercise.

I’ve had great results with Endurox, and there are other recovery drinks out there. Low-fat chocolate milk is pretty good if you tolerate the lactose well.

The other huge advantage of a recovery drink is that it moderates your blood sugar, and you don’t get super-hungry after the workout, and then overeat.

Sodium

Finally, you need to think about maintaining your sodium stores. If you are eating fairly well, you probably aren’t taking in a lot of sodium, and you can easily burn through all of that sodium after a few hours of continuous exercise. Your sports drink may not provide enough sodium, so you may need to consider supplementation

 

 


The importance of staying salty…

Salt (or at least the sodium component of it) is perhaps the most underappreciated and under-discussed nutrient for endurance cyclists.

Given my recent history, I’ve been doing a fair bit of research into the topic, and frankly I’ve been surprised how little information there is. That, coupled with a lot of bad press around sodium because of its well-established link to hypertension, means that most cyclists don’t think about salt. They do perhaps think a bit about hyponatremia.

Which is really a bit strange, when you think about it, as many of us have white stains on our helmet straps and that sandy feeling on our faces after a hard ride.

So, here’s what’s going on WRT salt, and a few things that you might want to think about.

When you sweat, you lose salt, along with a number of other electolytes.

Here’s a table I pulled from Burke’s Serious Cycling

  Sodium
(mEq/L)
Chloride
(mEQ/L)
Potassium
(mEq/L)
Magnesium
(mEq/L)
Blood Plasma 140 100 4 1.5
Muscle Tissue 9 5 160 30
Sweat 40-60 30-50 4-5 1.5-5

This chart uses mEq/L, which is basically a measure of the concentration of the various elements. What we’d like instead is a chart that shows the actual amount of the substance (which we get by multiplying by the molecular weight). My wife tells me that medicine is the only place that uses mEq/L as a measure…

Here’s the converted chart:

  Sodium
(mg/L)
Chloride
(mg/L)
Potassium
(mg/L)
Magnesium
(mg/L)
Blood Plasma 3220 3550 156 18
Muscle Tissue 207 172 6240 365
Sweat 920-1380 1065-1775 156-195 18-122

This chart shows the difference between salt (sodium and chloride), and the other major constituents of sweat. For potassium and magnesium, the concentration in the blood is fairly low compared to the concentration in muscle tissue. This means that loses of those two elements through sweat are relatively unimportant to the body’s total supply.

For sodium and chloride, however, the amount stored in muscle tissue is fairly minor. The majority of the storage is in the blood. And there’s really not that much there.

So, say that you’re out riding and only taking in water. Your sodium level drops. Your body wants to get rid of the water, but it doesn’t want to lose more sodium, so it stashes the water between cells, and you’re on your way to hyponeatremia.

This happens more quickly if you’re on a low-salt diet, which is what got me into this topic in the first place.

What that means is that you need to replace the salt. Serious Cycling suggests that you need from 400-1100mg of sodium and 500-1500mg of chloride. ACSM recommends 500-700mg of salt/liter.

Many hydration drinks have some salt in them – here’s a good comparison chart. Searching through that chart, I find that the accelerade that I drink only has about 500 mg of sodium per liter. That’s at most around 50% of the amount I need to replace the salt I sweat out (I’m a fairly salty sweater). Which explains a lot.

Almost all of the the drinks have some electrolytes – as they’re needed to help you absorb the drink – but some of them are pretty low. So, take a look at what your drink has in it, and that will help you figure out if you need supplementation. If you are riding for long periods, my guess is probably *yes*.

Symptoms:

  • Fatigue (yeah, I know, it’s a bit hard to judge after 60 miles)
  • Upset stomach
  • Headache
  • Aversion to sugary foods (I get this rather than a salt craving, though salt tastes good. This may also just be food fatigue)
  • Weight gain during the ride
  • Lack of urination, especially if you are drinking a lot.

A note on hypertension…

If you have hypertension (high blood pressure), this is an area that you will want to be careful with, and you may want to consult your physician before supplementation.

What supplements to use

A classic supplement is beef jerky, which tends to be around 1000mg per service. If you want a capsule you can swallow, both Lava Salts and Succeed E!Caps have a good reputation on the ultra (bike/run) sites.

A lot of people talk about Hammer’s Endurolytes capsules. The hammer hydration products are quite low in electrolytes (see the chart I linked to earlier), and frankly, I’m mystified by what’s in the endurolytes – they only have 40mg sodium and 60mg chloride, which is a really small amount. They suggest that you can take up to 6 of them per hour, but even that may not be enough. They do have other electrolytes, but you are probably okay without supplementation of potassium and magnesium during exercise.

One final note

As with all things related to nutrition/hydration, people have different responses, so you’ll probably have to play around to find out what works for you. If you are used to sweating a lot, your body has likely adapted so that you don’t lose as much electrolyte when you exercise. Conversely, if you don’t work out in the heat and/or don’t sweat as much, you may be near the upper end of electrolyte loss.

References

Ultracycling has two great references on this:

Low Blood Sodium

Water and Salt Intake during exercise


A miserable but learning experience…

Yesterday I headed out with a few friends on a 120 mile 8000 ft “training ride”. The plan was to start in Enumclaw, ride up to the top of Chinook pass, descend and ride up to the top of Sunrise, eat lunch, and then return back to Enumclaw.

I was a bit worried because I was riding with my friend Joe, who not only puts in at least twice as much mileage as I do but is also perhaps 30 pounds lighter than me. Luckily, Joe doesn’t mind riding slower so that others can keep up.

My nutrition plan was to use the Perpetuem, to hopefully avoid the issues I’ve had with Accelerade in the past on long rides. I also brought a bunch of Endurolyte capsules to give me a little extra electrolyte, and some Newtons to chew on. I made up two “two hour” bottles – with enough perpetuem for two hours in each – and carried a camelback for the extra water. I usually don’t like to do that, but we were limited with water sources and it was hot hot.

Joe had written up the ride as “16-18MPH on the flat”, which is what some of our other group rides. We tended towards the upper number (well, actually, above the upper number) for the first hour, which would have been very pleasant if not for the fact that we climbed around 1000 feet during that time. But, though my HR was a bit higher than I had planned (in the mid 140s rather than the 130s), that’s still right around my lactate threshold and I felt good and spent time talking with Greg as we rolled towards our first stop at Greenwater.

The next 17 miles we picked up another 1200 feet of altitude, as we journeyed towards the entrance to Mount Rainier National Park. By that point, I was starting to feel a little out of sorts – I didn’t have the same sort of snap, but I knew that I wasn’t dehydrated nor was I down on sugar. I took a few more endurolytes. Then the fun began, as we climbed up Chinook pass (9 miles, 2400 feet)

I did okay on the first part. I gapped off the back of the group – not a surprise – and just tried to ride my own pace, and finished the whole section in about 75 minutes. Not horrible, but not a lot of fun.

A quick descent back down to the white river campground, $5 to enter, and it was time to work on the Sunrise climb. By this point, I was seriously down on both oomph and motivation, and the other riders just rode away from me (partly because I forgot one of my gloves at the water fountain, but mostly because I was so down on energy). I did okay on the first 5 miles – which aren’t very steep – but then the road kicked up and it was all I could do to ride on my smallest gear (a 30/27) at perhaps 80 RPM. I rode a mile or so, and stopped to take a quick break and stretch. After another 15 minutes, it was clear to me that I wasn’t going to finish the climb, and I stopped, sat for a while, phoned Joe and my wife to tell them what was up (interestingly, there was great cell coverage there. My guess is that we were using the towers at the summit of Crystal Mountain Ski area, which is just across the valley from sunrise (and sports the best view of Mt. Rainier around)). And then I descended back down, and started suffering…

It was 26 miles from where I turned around back to Greenwater, which was the first place where I could get some real food. Suffice it to say that it wasn’t fun – I stopped a couple of times to rest, but it really didn’t help much. Eventually, I made it to Greenwater and stopped by the Naches tavern for some food.

The chicken strips and fries did wonders for me, and I ate them with considerable amounts of salt. I tried a Coke but the fructose did not sit well on my stomach, so I only drank about a third of it. After about 30 minutes, I got on the bike and rode the remaining 18 miles back to Enumclaw. I got a little bit of snap back in my legs and started to feel better.

The exact distance isn’t clear – because of me not remembering to start my new HRM – but it’s pretty close to 100 miles, with about 6500 feet of climbing.

The whole experience is eerily reminiscent of my experience on STP last year. I felt good at the beginning, then after 3 or 4 hours started to really lose power. Both days were hot, and both days I sweated a lot.

On the other hand, I did another hard climbing ride earlier this year (59 miles with 4K elevation) where I felt strong, but it was cool and overcast that day.

Are you thinking what I’m thinking, that perhaps I was down on sodium?

But that shouldn’t happen, should it? The perpetuem has electrolytes in it, and I was supplementing with Endurolytes. *But*, if you look at the labels, you find that Perpetuem only has 231mg in two scoops (a one-hour dose), and the Endurolytes only have 40m each. So, that puts me at about 350mg per hour of sodium. As a comparison, the Accelerade I use has 380mg in my hourly dose.

Is that enough? I did a little research…

While there are guidelines around how much sodium is necessary to help water absorption, there are differing opinions on amounts above that. In Serious Cycling, Burke reports a recommendation of 400mg to 1000mg per liter and ACSM recommends 500 to 700mg per liter.

The amount you need depends on how acclimatized you are to the heat – more highly trained atheletes sweat more water and less salt. And it depends on your personal physiology.

The anecdotal stuff I’ve read from the ultra groups (running, cycling, triathlons) says that at least for some people, salt supplementation is pretty important.

During those long hours on the bike, I was seriously considering skipping RAMROD, but I’ve now decided I’m going to do it. But, I’m going to use a better salt supplement.

A few pages I found useful:

Ultrarunner

Ultracycling

 

 

 


What makes a good hydration drink?

There are a lot of hydration (aka “sport”) drinks out there, ranging from the common Gatorade to esoteric ones like Gleukos. All make claims around why they are the best thing around and why all the other drinks suck.

So, I thought I’d write a bit about my understanding of what makes a good drink and help you decode some of the labels out there.

Calorie Density

The first thing that you need from a hydration drink is a sufficient calorie density. Most experts suggest 250 calories perhaps up to 350 calories per hour. So, you need a drink that has that many calories when mixed with a sufficient amount of liquid to make a reasonable dent in your hydration needs (sometimes you may need more or less water). That puts carbs in the 6% to 8% range. Drinks with fewer carbs don’t provide enough energy, and those with more don’t provide enough water.

Gastric Emptying & absorption

Once you have the sugar solution in your stomach, you need to get it absorbed into the bloodstream. The absorption of the water in the hydration drink is increased both by the presence of the sugar (within reason) and by the presence of electrolytes. Fructose is a bit different than other sugars in this respect – see later in the post for more info.

Sweetness

Sweetness is a primary factor in whether you drink enough to meet your energy and hydration needs. There are two important points here:

  1. A sweetness that tastes good at rest is likely too sweet for a workout beverage, so you won’t drink enough of it…

The second point is the most important one. Sucrose (table sugar) is arbitrarily given a value of 100 on the sweetness scale. The good hydration drink makers use different sugars to give you a product that isn’t too sweet but still packs enough carbs.

Acclerade is primarly sweetened with sucrose but uses Trehalose (sweetness=45) to tone the sweetness down, and also a bit of citric acid to make it more sour.

Perpetuem is at the other end of the spectrum, using Maltodextrin, which doesn’t have much sweetness at all, and to be frank, has a bit of a weird taste to it.

Protein

There is some good research around the benefits of adding protein to hydration drinks. Accelerade claims that their 4:1 ratio (using whey protein) is the best, Hammer claims that their 7:1 ratio (using soy protein) is the best.

I like the protein, but it does make water bottles a bit messy. I soak mine full of water overnight to make them easier to clean, but you should still make sure never to put the lid on a dry bottle, lest it mold.

Electrolytes

Electrolytes are added to hydration drinks to speed their absorption. They also can replace the electrolytes lost to sweat but aren’t usually present in amounts that will replace all the lost electrolytes, so you may need to supplement.

Simple or Complex carbs?

There is a lot of marketing out there on the advantages of complex carbs or glucose polymers over simpler sugars. I’m somewhat skeptical of the claims of benefits (other than their lack of sweetness) – maltodextrin is (for example) rapidly broken down into dextrose.

Food Fatigue

If you ride for long periods – say, more than 3 hours – it’s not unlikely to find yourself unable to stomach another swig of your drink. This is known as “food fatigue”, and is a good argument for a variety of foods rather than a single one. 

Bad Ideas:

Plain Water

Water by itself is bad for a few reasons.

Most obviously, water doesn’t have any caloric value, so it doesn’t help towards your energy needs. But there is a more important reason…

When you are sweating, your body is trying to maintain both your blood volume and the sodium concentration in your blood. If your blood volume goes down, you get thirsty, but if you drink plain water, that ends up diluting the sodium concentration in your blood, and your thirst is turned off.

Not to mention the fact that water is absorbed less quickly by itself, which may lead to a waterlogged (ie “sloshy”) feeling.

Now, if you’re using gels, solid food, or a concentrated drink, then when you add water, you get a good mixture, so that’s okay.

Fructose in drinks

Pre-mixed “original” Gatorade and powerade are both sweetened with high fructose corn syrup. Fructose is a bit of a weird sugar that has a couple of disadvantages:

First, it has a different absorption mechanism that limits how much you can absorb over time. If you get more than the amount that can be absorbed, the rest will be unabsorbed in your digestive tract, which can lead to the dreaded “GI difficulties” (typically diarrhea). Some people have fructose malabsorption which may make this worse.

Second, fructose gets processed through the liver, and is useful primarily in replacing liver glycogen rather than muscle glycogen.

In hydration drinks, the sweetness of fructose is also a severe disadvantage, and premixed gatorade is quite sweet but low on calorie density.

So, fructose is a bad choice as a primary sweetener, but not a problem as a secondary ingredient.

Powdered Gatorade does not have fructose, and their “endurance” formula is a combination of sucrose, glucose, and fructose, so those are likely better choices.

Fruit Juice

Fruit juice has (no surprise) a lot of fructose in it, and tends to be very sweet.

 


Carbs – the good, the bad and the ugly

When is sugar okay

Different kinds of sugar

Sugar metabolism and absorption

 Bonk

 

Carbohydrates have gotten a pretty bad reputation in the last few years – a not entirely undeserved reputation – for the bad effects that it can have on you. What is often not appreciated is that role of carbohydrates in exercise. So, I thought I’d write a little something that (with any luck) will make the whole subject less confusing.

I’m also going to simplify a bunch of information. Let me know if I went too far.

Carbohydrates and blood sugar 

Your body has regulation mechanisms to keep your blood sugar level constant. When it gets low, you get hungry.

And then, presumably, you eat. Through a wonderful and intricate process, the food gets digested, and your blood sugar goes up. And now, the important part:

The way in which your blood sugar changes depends on what carbs you eat.

This is described in a very simplistic way by a measure known as the Glycemic Index. You determine this by giving a group of volunteers a small portion of different foods and measure how much their blood sugar goes up over a specific time.

And then you end up with a chart that gives a value for each food (well, actually, two values. There is one scale where glucose=100 and another where white bread=100).

Why does this matter? Well, if you eat high glycemic foods, you get a spike in your blood sugar, which your body tries to regulate down with the release of insulin which pulls the sugar out of your blood and stores it as fat. Unfortunately, the insulin response is too much, which causes your blood sugar to drop, which makes you hungry, so you eat again.

Over time, this is believed to lead to insulin resistance, where the body stops responding to the insulin and the blood sugar stays high. At that point, you have type 2 diabetes, or are close to it.

This effect has been immortalized in the “I ate chinese food, but an hour later I’m hungry again”. Chinese food is often eaten with a lot of white rice, which has a fairly high glycemic index.

But, it’s not as simple as all that. First of all, it’s not just the glycemic index that is important but the amount of carbs in the food you eat. Carrots have a very high glycemic index but don’t contain much carbohydrate so they have little effect. The glycemic index is also a function of the whole meal, not just one component, and fats and protein both have a moderating impact on the glycemic index of carbs.

Sugar in your diet

effects of all sugars, including fructose

Sugar Absorption & Conversion

The ultimate destination of carbs is glucose, which is either used directly in the brain (and muscles), or stored in the liver and muscles and glycogen.

But first, the carbohydrate needs to be converted to glucose.

 glycemic index drawbacks.

 

 

 

 

insulin response

 

sweetness

Bonk